Regular Article – Atomic Physics
Effective pressures on the outer-, inner-, and shell-confined hydrogenic atoms
College of Physics, Jilin University, 130012, Changchun, People’s Republic of China
2 Helmholtz-Institut Jena, 07743, Jena, Germany
3 GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291, Darmstadt, Germany
4 Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, 130012, Changchun, People’s Republic of China
5 College of Physical Science and Technology, Shenyang Normal University, 110034, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China
6 Chemistry Program, Centre College, 40422, Danville, KY, USA
7 Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, 10617, Taipei, Taiwan
8 Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, 07743, Jena, Germany
Accepted: 3 May 2023
Published online: 21 May 2023
Effective pressures at the boundaries of the outer-, inner-, and shell-confined H atoms are investigated using the numerical differentiation technique in which the system energies are solved by employing the generalized pseudospectral method. High-precision inner and outer effective pressures are obtained, and the results are compared with previous predictions based on a formula from the virial equation of state. We find that although the virial-based formula is well-suited for estimating the pressure on outer-confined atoms, it is generally not applicable for the inner- and shell-confined situations. The asymptotic laws of effective pressures on the outer- and inner-confined H atoms as the confinement radius approaches zero and infinity, respectively, are analyzed. For the shell-confined H atom, the distinct behaviors of effective pressures at the inner and outer boundaries as well as for the s and non-s bound states are attributed to the different confinement effect of boundaries on both the system eigenenergies and wave functions.
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