Regular Article – Cold Matter and Quantum Gases
Novel phases in rotating Bose-condensed gas: vortices and quantum correlation
Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, A Central University, 110025, New Delhi, India
Accepted: 4 May 2023
Published online: 23 May 2023
We present the exact diagonalization study of rotating Bose-condensed gas interacting via finite-range Gaussian potential confined in a quasi-2D harmonic trap. The system of many-body Hamiltonian matrix is diagonalized in given subspaces of quantized total angular momentum to obtain the lowest energy eigenstate employing the beyond lowest Landau level approximation. In the co-rotating frame, the quantum mechanical stability of angular momentum states is discussed for the existence of phase transition between the stable states of interacting system. Thereby analyzing the von Neumann entanglement entropy and degree of condensation provides the information about quantum phase correlation in the many-body states. Calculating the conditional probability distribution, we further probe the internal structure of quantum mechanically stable and unstable states. Much emphasis is put on finding the spatial correlation of bosonic atoms in the rotating system for the formation and entry of singly quantized vortices and then organizing into canonical polygons with and without a central vortex at the trap center. Results are summarized in the form of a movie depicting the vortex patterns having discrete p-fold rotational symmetry with p = 2,3,4,5,6.
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