Sodium doping and reactivity in pure and mixed ice nanoparticles*
J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Czech Academy of
Received: 22 September 2015
Received in final form: 19 October 2015
Published online: 8 December 2015
Doping of clusters by sodium atoms and subsequent photoionization (NaPI) is used as a fragmentation-free cluster ionization method. Here we investigate different clusters using NaPI and electron ionization (EI) with a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RTOF). The mass spectra of the same clusters ionized by NaPI and EI reveal significant differences which point to Na reactivity in the clusters. First, we discuss mixed XM·(H2O)N (X = HNO3, N2O) clusters where reactions between Na and molecules X leads to the “cluster invisibility” for the NaPI method. Second, mixed (NH3)M·(H2O)N clusters are observed by both methods, but they reveal different cluster compositions, and the mass spectra suggest that neither the EI nor the NaPI spectrum corresponds exactly to the neutral cluster distribution. Finally, we discuss the reactions of Na in pure water clusters as a function of the number of Na atoms doped into the clusters. In summary, we present experimental evidence that the NaPI method in the present cases does not reveal the size and composition of the neutral clusters. A detailed understanding of Na reactivity in the clusters is needed for its application as a fragmentation-free cluster ionization method. Besides, we introduce the combination of NaPI and EI as a new tool to investigate the sodium reactivity in clusters and aerosol particles.
© EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag 2015