Fragmentation and reliable size distributions of large ammonia and water clusters
Max–Planck–Institut für Strömungsforschung, Bunsenstraße 10, 37073 Göttingen, Germany
Corresponding author: a email@example.com
Published online: 15 May 2002
The interaction of large ammonia and water clusters in the size range from to 3 400 with electrons is investigated in a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The clusters are generated in adiabatic expansions through conical nozzles and are nearly fragmentation free detected by single photon ionization after they have been doped by one sodium atom. For ammonia also the (1+1) resonance enhanced two photon ionization through the state with v=6 operates similarly. In this way reliable size distributions of the neutral clusters are obtained which are analyzed in terms of a modified scaling law of the Hagena type [Surf. Sci. 106, 101 (1981)]. In contrast, using electron impact ionization, the clusters are strongly fragmented when varying the electron energy between 150 and 1 500 eV. The number of evaporated molecules depends on the cluster size and the energy dependence follows that of the stopping power of the solid material. Therefore we attribute the operating mechanism to that which is also responsible for the electronic sputtering of solid matter. The yields, however, are orders of magnitude larger for clusters than for the solid. This result is a consequence of the finite dimensions of the clusters which cannot accommodate the released energy.
PACS: 36.40.-c – Atomic and molecular clusters / 36.40.Qv – Stability and fragmentation of clusters / 61.46.+w – Nanoscale materials: clusters, nanoparticles, nanotubes, and nanocrystals
© EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag, 2002