Topical Review - Atomic and Molecular Collisions
Directional dependency of electronic stopping in nickel, projectile’s excited charge state and momentum transfer
Quantum Simulations Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, 94550, Livermore, CA, USA
Accepted: 7 September 2021
Published online: 29 October 2021
We studied the directional dependency of electronic stopping power of swift light ions in nickel using real-time time-dependent density functional theory. We report a variation of electronic stopping for moving ions as the projectile probes different electronic densities of the host material. These results show that while the predicted magnitude stays in reasonable agreement with experiment, for . a.u. simulating only low index crystallographic directions is not enough to sample the experimental average values. The ab initio simulations give us access to microscopic quantities, such as non-adiabatic forces, momentum transfer and transient excited state charges of the projectile and host ions, which are not available through other methods. We report these quantities for the first time.
© The Author(s) 2021
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.