https://doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2014-50386-9

Regular Article

## Thirty five classes of solutions of the quantum time-dependent two-state problem in terms of the general Heun functions

^{1}
Institute for Physical Research, NAS of Armenia, 0203
Ashtarak,
Armenia

^{2}
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,
Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700, Russia

^{a}
e-mail: aishkhanyan@gmail.com

Received: 15 May 2014

Received in final form: 13 October 2014

Published online: 8 January 2015

We derive 35 five-parametric classes of the quantum time-dependent two-state models solvable in terms of the general Heun functions. Each of the classes is defined by a pair of generating functions the first of which is referred to as the amplitude- and the second one as the detuning-modulation function. The classes suggest numerous families of specific field configurations with different physical properties generated by appropriate choices of the transformation of the independent variable, real or complex. There are many families of models with constant detuning or constant amplitude, numerous classes of chirped pulses of controllable amplitude and/or detuning, families of models with double or multiple (periodic) crossings, periodic amplitude modulation field configurations, etc. The detuning modulation function is the same for all the derived classes. This function involves four arbitrary parameters, that is, two more than the previously known hypergeometric classes. These parameters in general are complex and should be chosen so that the resultant detuning is real for the applied (arbitrary) complex-valued transformation of the independent variable. The generalization of the detuning modulation function to the four-parametric case is the most notable extension since many useful properties of the two-state models described by the Heun equation are due to namely the additional parameters involved in this function. Many of the derived amplitude modulation functions present different generalizations of the known hypergeometric models. In several cases the generalization is achieved by multiplying the amplitude modulation function of the corresponding prototype hypergeometric class by an extra factor including an additional parameter. Finally, many classes suggest amplitude modulation functions having forms not discussed before. We present several families of constant-detuning field configurations generated by a real transformation of the independent variable. The members of these families are symmetric or asymmetric two-peak finite-area pulses with controllable distance between the peaks and controllable amplitude of each of the peaks. We show that the edge shapes, the distance between the peaks as well as the amplitude of the peaks are controlled almost independently, by different parameters. We identify the parameters controlling each of the mentioned features and discuss other basic properties of pulse shapes. We show that the pulse edges may become step-wise functions and determine the positions of the limiting vertical-wall edges. We show that the pulse width is controlled by only two of the involved parameters. For some values of these parameters the pulse width diverges and for some other values the pulses become infinitely narrow. We show that the effect of the two mentioned parameters is almost similar, that is, both parameters are able to independently produce pulses of almost the same shape and width. We determine the conditions for generation of pulses of almost indistinguishable shape and width, and present several such examples. Finally, we present a constant-amplitude periodic level-crossing model and several families of constant-detuning field configurations generated by complex transformations of the independent variable.

Key words: Atomic Physics

*© EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag 2015*