Hamiltonian structure of a drift-kinetic model and Hamiltonian closures for its two-moment fluid reductions⋆
Aix-Marseille Université, Université de Toulon, CNRS,
Centre de Physique Théorique, UMR 7332, 13288
Received in final form: 28 April 2014
Published online: 24 July 2014
We address the problem of the existence of the Hamiltonian structure for an electrostatic drift-kinetic model and for the related fluid models describing the evolution of the first two moments of the distribution function with respect to the parallel velocity. The drift-kinetic model, which accounts for background density and temperature gradients as well as polarization effects, is shown to possess a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. The corresponding Poisson bracket is expressed in terms of the fluid moments and it is found that the set of functionals of the zero order moment forms a sub-algebra, thus automatically leading to a class of one-moment Hamiltonian fluid models. In particular, in the limit of weak spatial variations of the background quantities, the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation, with its Hamiltonian structure, is recovered. For the set of functionals of the first two moments, which, unlike the case of the Vlasov equation, turns out not to form a sub-algebra, we look for closures that lead to a closed Poisson bracket restricted to this set of functionals. The constraint of the Jacobi identity turns out to select the adiabatic equation of state for an ideal gas with one-degree-of-freedom molecules, as the only admissible closure in this sense. When the so called δf ordering is applied to the model, on the other hand, a Poisson bracket is obtained if the second order moment is a linear combination of the first two moments of the total distribution function. By means of this procedure, three-dimensional Hamiltonian fluid models that couple a generalized Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation with an evolution equation for the parallel velocity are derived. Among these, a model adopted by Meiss and Horton [Phys. Fluids 26, 990 (1983)] to describe drift waves coupled to ion-acoustic waves, is obtained and its Hamiltonian structure is provided explicitly.
© EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag 2014