Collective excitations of a periodic Bose condensate in the Wannier representation
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica
della Materia and Classe di Scienze, Scuola Normale Superiore, 56126 Pisa, Italy
Revised: 22 March 2000
Published online: 15 September 2000
We study the dispersion relation of the excitations of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a periodic optical potential and its Bloch oscillations in an accelerated frame. The problem is reduced to one-dimensionality through a renormalization of the s-wave scattering length and the solution of the Bogolubov-de Gennes equations is formulated in terms of the appropriate Wannier functions. Some exact properties of a periodic one-dimensional condensate are easily demonstrated: (i) the lowest band at positive energy refers to phase modulations of the condensate and has a linear dispersion relation near the Brillouin zone centre; (ii) the higher bands arise from the superposition of localized excitations with definite phase relationships; and (iii) the wavenumber-dependent current under a constant force in the semiclassical transport regime vanishes at the zone boundaries. Early results by Slater [Phys. Rev. 87, 807 (1952)] on a soluble problem in electron energy bands are used to specify the conditions under which the Wannier functions may be approximated by on-site tight-binding orbitals of harmonic-oscillator form. In this approximation the connections between the low-lying excitations in a lattice and those in a harmonic well are easily visualized. Analytic results are obtained in the tight-binding scheme and are illustrated with simple numerical calculations for the dispersion relation and semiclassical transport in the lowest energy band, at values of the system parameters which are relevant to experiment.
PACS: 67.40.Db – Quantum statistical theory; ground state, elementary excitations
© EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag, 2000