Quantum derivation of the excess noise factor in lasers with non-orthogonal eigenmodes
Institut d'Optique, B.P. 147, 91403 Orsay cedex, France
Revised: 11 March 1999
Published online: 15 August 1999
By generalizing recently obtained results we calculate the excess noise factor (Petermann factor) for a laser system with non-orthogonal eigenmodes. The quantum consistency of the calculation is shown through the explicit conservation of input-output commutation rules. As a result of the calculation, the excess noise in the lasing mode is shown to depend on the laser gain below threshold, and on the noise analysis frequency below and above threshold.
PACS: 42.50.Lc – Quantum fluctuations, quantum noise, and quantum jumps / 42.55.Ah – General laser theory / 42.60.Da – Resonators, cavities, amplifiers, arrays, and rings
© EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag, 1999